Papers with HIV / AIDS TABLE OF CONTENTS

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FOREWORD iIi TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONA.Latar Back Problem 1B.Rumusan Problem 2C.Tujuan Writing 2D.Manfaat Writing 2E.Sistematika Writing 2CHAPTER II Acquired Immuno Deficiency SyndromeTravel A.Perkembangan and HIV / AIDS 4B.Siapa Vulnerable Affected by HIV / AIDS 6C.Pencegahan HIV / AIDS 7D.Situasi HIV / AIDS in Indonesia 8CHAPTER III FINALA.Kesimpulan 10B.Saran 10REFERENCES
CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION
A.Latar Back IssuesAIDS virus is found in human body fluids, and most commonly found in blood, semen and vaginal fluids. On other body fluids can also be found (such as fluid milk) but the amount is very small.Some 75-85% of transmission occurs through sexual contact (5-10% of them through a homosexual relationship), 5-10% due to contaminated syringes (primarily in injecting drug users), 3-5% through contaminated blood transfusions.Most HIV infections (over 80%) suffered by the productive age group (14-49 years), especially men, but women tend to increase the proportion of patients.Infection in infants and children, 90% were from HIV + mothers. Approximately 25-35% of infants born to mother with HIV will be living with HIV, with infection occurring during pregnancy, during childbirth and through breastfeeding. With antiretroviral treatment of pregnant women in last trimester, the risk of transmission can be reduced to only 8%.Initially it started with the transmission in the homosexual (gay). Because among the groups there are also bisexual homosexual, then the infection spread into the heterosexual population who often have multiple sexual partners.In the second stage, the infection began to spread in the group of prostitutes and their clients.In the third stage, developing transmission to wives of prostitutes customers.In the fourth stage, began to increase transmission to infants and children of mothers with HIV.B.Rumusan ProblemDeparting from the above background the author identifies several problems as follows:1.Bagaimanakah developmental HIV / AIDS in the world?2.Siapakah are vulnerable to the AIDS virus?3.Bagaimana AIDS prevention?4.Bagaimana situation of HIV / AIDS in Indonesia?
C.TujuanThe purpose of this paper is as follows:1.For know the progression of HIV / AIDS.2.Untuk know anyone who is vulnerable to the HIV / AIDS.3.For know the prevention of HIV / AIDS.
Writing D.ManfaatBy knowing how the development, the impact of HIV / AIDS, then we will understand how ferociously HIV / AIDS.
Writing E.SistematikaFOREWORDTABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONA.Latar Back IssuesB.Rumusan ProblemWriting C.TujuanWriting D.ManfaatWriting E.SistematikaCHAPTER II Acquired Immuno Deficiency SyndromeTravel A.Perkembangan and HIV / AIDSB.Siapa Vulnerable Affected by HIV / AIDS
C.Pencegahan HIV / AIDSD.Situasi HIV / AIDS in IndonesiaCHAPTER III FINALA.KesimpulanB.SaranREFERENCES

CHAPTER IIAcquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
Travel A.Perkembangan and HIV / AIDSThe first case in San Francisco on ditemykan was gay in 1981. According to UNAIDS (United Nations Agency for AIDS prevention) s / d end of 1995, the number of people infected with HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus) in the world has reached 28 million of which 2.4 million are cases of infants and children. New infections occur every day as many as 8500 people, about 1,000 of them infants and children.Some 5.8 million people have died from AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome), 1.3 million are infants and children. AIDS has become the leading cause of death in the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand. In Zambia, the AIDS epidemic has lowered life expectancy from 66 years to 33 years, in Zimbabwe will be reduced from 70 years to 40 years in Uganda and will drop from 59 years to 31 years in 2010.By the time a person infected with AIDS virus it will take 5-10 years to get to a stage known as AIDS. Once the virus enters the body of man, then for 2-4 months where the virus can not be detected by blood tests even though the virus itself is present in the human body. This phase is called the window period. Before entering the stage of AIDS, HIV-positive person is named because there is HIV in their blood. At this stage of the HIV + physical state concerned does not have any complaints or abnormalities typical, and can even keep working as usual. In terms of transmission, then the condition is concerned has been actively transmit the virus to others if he held a sex or a blood donor.Since the entry of the virus in the human body the virus will undermine the white blood cells (which play a role in the immune system) and after 5-10 years it will be destroyed and immune patients included in the AIDS stage where there is a variety of infections such as fungal infections, virus- Another virus, cancer and so on. The patient will die within 1-2 years later because of infection.In industrialized countries, an HIV-infected adults will be AIDS within the next 12 years, whereas in developing countries a shorter time period of 7 years.Having to AIDS, survival rate in the industrialized countries have been able to be extended to 3 years, whereas in developing countries is still less than 1 year. Survival rate is closely related to the use of antiretroviral drugs, treatment of opportunistic infections and better service quality.The pattern of infections globally, approximately 90% of cases of HIV / AIDS in developing countries. At present the cause is:Sub-Saharan Africa: 14 millionSouth-East Asia: 4.8 millionEast Asia-Pacific: 35,000Middle East: 200,000Caribbean: 270 000Latin America: 1.3 millionEastern Europe-Central Asia: 30,000Australia: 13 000Western Europe: 470 000North America: 780 000With globalization, the movement of population and economic growth, the epicenter of HIV / AIDS now shifted to Asia.In 2000, the estimated number of HIV / AIDS will increase to 30-40 million people and the accretion of new cases will be found in most of South and Southeast Asia.In industrialized countries have shown decline in the number of new cases (incidence) per year. In the United States, has dropped from 100,000 new cases / year to 40,000 new cases / year. A similar pattern was also seen in Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand.Decline in new cases related to the level of condom use, reduced number of sexual partners and memasyarakatnya sex education for teenagers.Decline in HIV infection also be improved as a result of early diagnosis and adequate treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Tanzania, an area that has good service runs PMSnya HIV incidence is 40% lower. Research in the Ivory Coast, Africa showed that STD treatment reduces viral load, thereby reducing infectivity.
B.Siapa Vulnerable Affected by HIV / AIDSAIDS virus infection is mainly caused by sexual promiscuity. Therefore most at risk for contracting AIDS is anyone who has such behavior. It must be remembered that such behavior is not only owned by a group of sex workers but also by other groups such as teenagers, college students, young executives and so on. So what matters here is not the "group" where but in the "behavior" of multiple partners.Women are more vulnerable to HIV infection due to anatomical factors, biological and sociological factors-gender.Anatomical-biological condition caused her pelvic structure of women in a position to "hold", and female reproductive organs of its "get into" than men that are "stand out". This situation causes an infection easily without being noticed by the relevant khronik. Khronik infection will facilitate the entry of HIV virus.Mucosa (inner lining) female reproductive organs are also very delicate and susceptible to treatment in the process of sexual intercourse. This injury also facilitate HIV infection.Gender-sociological factors associated with low social status of women (education, economy, skills). As a result of women in vulnerable circumstances that led to the abuse and the use of sexual violence, and finally plunged into prostitution as a survival strategy.Case in Ghana in the Volta River dam construction, causing thousands of residents displaced from their homes. The men could obtain employment as a laborer and later became a fisherman. The women are only familiar with the work out to the city and eventually fall in employment and service provision of sexual entertainment. As a result, many who suffer from sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV) and dying from AIDS.In Northern Thailand, due to economic development and a rapidly growing industry led to decreased agricultural land and women displaced from their traditional jobs in agriculture. Most of the later migration to big cities and become prostitutes and eventually infected by HIV.
C.Pencegahan HIV / AIDSIn principle, prevention can be done by preventing the transmission of AIDS virus. Because most AIDS transmission is through sexual transmission of AIDS is preventable by not changing sexual partners.Another prevention is through prevention of blood contact, such as prevention of repeated use of needles, people with the virus should not be a blood donor.In summary, prevention can be done with the ABC formula. A is abstinence, which means not having sex before marriage. B is befaithful, meaning a married just to have sex with any partner. C is the condom, which means if it means A and B can not be adhered to then have to use the tool of prevention by using condoms.Komperensi meeting at the XI International AIDS Vancouver in July 1966 reported the use of three drug combination (triple drugs) which can reduce the viral load to a minimum amount and give the hope of healing.Obstacles encountered for the treatment is too expensive for the supply of drugs and laboratory monitoring costs, which amounted to U.S. $ 16,000-US $ 25.000/tahun. Another obstacle is patient adherence to medication in the discipline in a period of 1.5 to 3 years, because of the drugs taken on an irregular basis will lead to resistance.Estimated because of the high cost of treatment, then there is only 5-10% of people with HIV are capable of treatment using drugs this triple. If this cost problem can not be overcome, then the drug will not be able to eradicate HIV / AIDS significantly.Research to find a preventive HIV vaccine is also being conducted. The cost of vaccination is not expected to triple as expensive drugs. If a vaccine for HIV prevention, the problem is the achievement of high vaccination coverage (80%) if desired impact of HIV eradication. To achieve coverage of this, it is estimated will cost quite expensive and difficult to be provided by developing countries.Side effects of expensive drugs and the availability of cost for the implementation of vaccination, leading to the emergence of a new discrimination issues that rich and poor. Rich people with HIV will be able to provide triple the cost for drugs, but the poor continue to die. Rich industrial countries can provide a cost to achieve high vaccination coverage, while developing countries may not be able to.


D.Situasi HIV / AIDS in IndonesiaAs of September 1996, the number of cases of HIV / AIDS reached 449 people, with the largest age group at the age of 20-29 years (47%) and women's groups as much as 27%. Productive age group (15-49 years) reached 87%. Judging from the location, most cases are found in DKI Jakarta, West Papua and Riau.The number of cases recorded above is according to official records is by far lower than actual fact due to the limitations of our health system of surveillance devices.The problem of HIV / AIDS in many countries are showing an iceberg phenomenon, where the look is much smaller than the actual number.AIDS response in Indonesia is still much directed to groups such as sex workers and transvestites, although it also has encouraged efforts aimed at the general public, such as mothers, college students and high school youth. Who still have not worked adequately is a group of workers in companies that are the productive age group.Projections of developments in the case of HIV / AIDS in Indonesia is expected to break the 1 million cases in 2005, and according to the existing epidemiological patterns, the number of cases there will be at the productive age group (it should be remembered that in 2003 Indonesia will enter the APEC free trade and the need HR is tough to compete in global markets).


CHAPTER IIICLOSING
A.KesimpulanBased on the discussion in the chapter "Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome" the authors conclude as follows:1.Kasus first discovery of HIV / AIDS in San Francisco in a gay-1981.2.Virus AIDS is found in semen, vaginal fluids and blood, and transmission occurs through sexual contact, drug syringes, transfusion of blood and breast milk.3.AIDS can attack anyone who is doing the behavior that causes AIDS (changing sexual, injecting drug users, transfusion of contaminated blood).4.Pencegahan that most can not reduce happen HIV / AIDS is the ABC-.A (abstinence) = do not have sex before marriage.B (befaithful) = a married just to have sex with their partner.C (condom) = if A and B not to be adhered to then use a condom.
B.SaranSafe sex is with non freesex.Friend, many people believe that AIDS is more due to factors "Humans behavior" of human behavior itself.Friend ... then the problem should first dibehani life is all about confidence, rather than millions upon millions of money ngeluarin better ngeluarin baseball at all. Well, my youth, not mutually couple. We try to FAITHFUL ...., chayoo ...
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