SOCIAL ATTITUDES

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Labels: papersCHAPTER I     INTRODUCTION
A. Background      The term attitude which in English is called attitude was first used by Herbert Spencer (1862), who uses this word to designate a person's mental status. Then in 1888 Lange uses this concept in a laboratory experiment. Then the concept of attitude is popularly used by sociologists and psychologists. For psychologists, the attention to attitudes rooted in the reasons for individual differences. Why different individuals show different behavior in situations that most of the symptoms described by the different noodles attitude. As for the attitude of the sociologist has a greater meaning to explain the social and cultural change.
      We already know that people in touch with other people not just doing that alone, but also realize that was done and also realize that the situation has nothing to do with the deed. Mi awareness not only about the behavior that has occurred, but also behavior that may occur. Individual consciousness which determines real deeds and actions that may be happening is that the dynamics of ATTITUDE. So the attitude is a matter that menentukansifat, nature, good deeds and actions now that will come.
Therefore psychologists W.J. Thomas provides limits attitude as an individual consciousness which determines real actions or that may occur in social activities.
In this case Thomas stated that a person's attitude is always directed toward something or a particular object. No one else without the attitude object.

1.2 Problem formulationBased on what was raised in the background of the authors draw a formulation of the problem as follows:A. What is meant by social attitudes?2. What is the social and individual dengansikap?3. How the formation and change of attitude?4. Apasajakah characteristics and function of attitude?5. How to measure attitudes directly and indirectly?
1.3 Methods of ResearchThe method used in this study is a method of literary study. The selection method is due to research conducted aimed at identifying the problems of social attitudes by reference to the literature, articles and other literature sources.CHAPTER IIDISCUSSION
A. Definition of Social AttitudesAttitude is the individual consciousness which determines real action in social activities. Then social attitudes are individual consciousness which determines real action, repeated on social objects. This happens not only on other people in the community.
Each position has three aspectsA. Cognitive aspects are related to the familiar symptoms of the mind. This means processing intangible, experiences, and beliefs and expectations of individuals about a particular object or object group.2. Afekit intangible aspects concerning the specific feelings such as fear, jealousy, sympathy, antipathy, and so devoted to the object-specific motorcycle.3. Conative aspects: process intangible tendency / inclination for something berbuatu objects, such as the tendency to give aid, and so abstainIn addition to the social attitudes are individual attitudes, the attitudes held by individuals only, for example: a person's attitude or preference for certain birds, such as turtledove, parakeets, pigeons, and so forth.
Attitude as the level of trend that is positive or negative psychology associated with the object. Here the object of psychology include: symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas, and so forth.
People said to have a positive attitude toward a psychology objeic if he likes (like) or have a favorable attitude, otherwise people are said to have a negative attitude towards the object of psychology when he does not like (dislike) or unfavorable attitude toward the object of psychology (Back, Kurt W. ., 1977, p3)
John H. Harvey and William P. Smith defines attitude as a readiness to respond consistently in a positive or negative form of the object or situation.
While Genmgan define that notion can be translated with the word attitude attitudes toward specific objects, which can be an attitude, views or attitudes of feeling, an attitude which is accompanied by a tendency unmk act in accordance with the attitude of the object before it. So the attitude is better translated as the attitude and willingness to act on a matter.
        Although there are some differences pcngertian about his attitude, but there are some traits that can be approved. Most of the experts and researchers agree that the attitude is the attitude of a learned predisposition to influence behavior, change in terms of intensity, usually consistent throughout wakru in the same situation, and its composition is almost always complex. In connection with that we also tend to express the attitude of the following terms: Attitude is a readiness to respond to positive or negative nature of the object or situation consistently.
Thus, the attitude is a concept that helps us to understand behavior. A number of differences in behavior may be a reflection or manifestation of the same attitude.
B. Individual and Social AttitudeA. Social Attitudes       Social attitudes expressed by a course but not noticed by the people sekelompoknya. Its object is a social object (the object is a lot of people in the group) and expressed repeatedly. For example: the attitude of all members of the group mourned the death of a hero.So that indicates social attitude is:a. The subject of the people in his group.b. Bunch of its objects, social objects.c. Stated over and over again.
2. Individual attitudesThis is only owned individually one by one. The object was not a social object. For example: Attitude is a pleasure for any one food or one type of vegetation.
           In addition to the division of social attitudes and individual behavior can also be distinguished by:A. Positive attitude: the attitude of the show or shows, merima, admit, approve, and implement the applicable norms in which the individual is located.2. Sikapnegatif: show or shows the attitude of rejection or disapproval of the prevailing norms in which the individual is located.
The attitude of positive / negative is of course related to the norm. People will not know whether a person's attitude is positive or negative without knowing the prevailing norms.
              Therefore, to determine whether this positive attitude / negatifperlu consulted with the norms prevailing in situ. In addition, each group or social entity has its own norms that may differ or even contradict each other. Dliperlihatkan attitude by individuals in group A are considered or assessed as a negative attitude, not necessarily the same attitude displayed by members of the group B is also considered as a negative attitude.
C. Attitude Formation and ChangeAttitude arises because there is stimulus. Formation of an attitude that is heavily influenced by environmental stimulants such as social and culture: family, norms, religious groups, and customs. In this case the family has a big role in shaping the attitude of his sons. For families that as a primary group for children is the most dominant influence. Person's attitude is not always permanent. This does not mean people do not behave. He also only be in form: silent.
             Attitude to grow and develop in a certain social base, for example: economics, politics, religion and so forth. In the development of attitudes are influenced by the environment, or group norms. This will result in differences in attitudes between the same individual to another because of differences in environmental influences or received. Attitude will not be formed without human interaction, to a certain object or an object.
A. The factors that cause changes in attitudesThe factors that cause changes in attitudes1) internal factors: the man himself.2) external factors: the human factor.In this case the Sheriff suggests that attitudes can be changed or established if:a. There is a direct interrelationship between humans.b. Communication (ie direct connection) and one party.
Even this factor still depends of:- The source of lighting is gaining the trust of a lot / no.- In doubt whether or not to face the fact and content of the new attitude.
                Formation and attitude change does not happen by itself. Attitudes formed in relation to an object, people, groups, institutions, values, through the relationship between individuals, relationships within the group, communication newspapers, books, posters, radio, television and so on, there are many possibilities that affect the onset of stance. Environment that is closest to everyday life baiyak have a role. And family comprising: parents, brothers and sisters at home have an important role.
While people argue that teaching attitude is the responsibility of parents or religious institutions. But not so. Institutions of the school also has a duty as well in fostering this attitude. Is not the purpose of education both at school and outside school is the influence, carrying, guiding students to have an attitude as expected by their respective educational goals?
Thus the institutions of formal education in this school has a duty to foster and develop students' attitudes toward the attitude that we expect.In essence, the purpose of education is to change students' attitudes toward educational goals.
2. The relationship between attitudes and behaviorThe close relationship between attitude (attitude) and behavior (behavior) is supported by a sense of attitude that says that attitude is a tendency to act.But few studies have attempted to link between attitudes and behavior suggests somewhat different results, which showed a small or even negative relationship.

D. Function Characteristics And AttitudesAttitude determines the type or nature of behavior in relation to the relevant stimulus, people or events. It could be said that attitude is an internal factor, but not all the internal factor is attitude. The characteristics of attitudes are as follows:A. Attitudes are learned (learnablity)Attitude is a result of this study need to be distinguished from other psychological motives. Some attitudes learned unintentionally and without awareness to some individuals. Perhaps what happened was on purpose when studying the attitudes of individuals to understand that it will bring better (for himself), helping the group's goals, or obtain something of value that are individual.
2. Memihki stability (Stability)Attitude stems and studied, then became more powerful, permanent, and stable, through the experience.
3. Personal (societal significance)Attitude involves the relationship between a person and others and also between people and things or situations. If a person feels that others fun, open and warm, then this would mean a lot to him, he felt free, and favorable.
4. Contains cognisi and affeksiCognisi components than is the attitude of factual information, for example: the object is perceived pleasant or unpleasant.While the function of attitudes (task) behavior can be divided into four categories, namely:1) The attitude serves as a tool for menyesuaikandiri.2) Attitudes serve as a regulator of behavior3) Attitudes serve as a regulator of the experiences4) The attitude serves as a statement of personality
E. Attitude Measurement Direct and IndirectSocial Psychology experts have sought to measure attitudes in various ways. Some form of measurement has been developed since the holding of the first study that attitude in 1920. The subjects were asked to respond to the attitude object in different ways.
This attitude measurements can be carried out:A. Direct (Direct measures of attitudes)2. Indirectly (Indirect measures ofattitudes). (Whittaker, 1970, p. 594-596).A. Direct measurement of attitudesIn general psychology test used in the form of a number of items that have been prepared carefully, carefully, selectively according to specific criteria. Psychological tests are then developed into the attitude scale. And scale of attitude is expected to get answers to questions in different ways by respondents to an object of psychology.
2. Indirect measurement of attitudesDirect attitude measurement techniques that have been discussed in advance based on the awareness of the subject will be the attitude and readiness to communicate verbally (verbal). With this technique, subjects also know that attitude is being measured, and upon this knowledge may affect the answer. It's one of the problems frequently encountered in the use of direct measurement techniques. Is there a respondent to answer truthfully?
Because the possibility to answer honestly is not in the sense of what it is is huge. When we asked about our feelings or attitudes towards neighbors, will most likely answer is positive although it is not the case. Actually this problem has been reduced by the construction of the items most accurate. However, it does not mean that the problem has been resolved fully.
          Based on the above problem is to some experts sought to develop a technique to measure attitudes directly. In the indirect technique, the subject does not know that the behavior or attitude under investigation. Indirect techniques are especially useful when respondents seemed reluctant to express an honest manner.
In an indirect technique, a researcher gave the drawings to the subject, the subject was asked to tell what he saw from the picture.
subject-score later in the show his attitude toward people and situations in this picture. As has been done by Proshansky (: 1943), explored attitudes toward labor. Here the measurement of attitudes indirectly, that is the subject dliperlihatkan pictures and workers in various conflict situations.
Subjects were asked to tell about the pictures in an essay or story.
          But the indirect attitude measurement techniques mi raises some important issues for psychologists. The extent to which individual attitudes can be revealed, if he is not aware of it, in addition, it is not a violation of a personal nature reveals something beyond knowledge and awareness? Is this not a breach of ethics? Do we always need the permission or consent of the respondent? These are things that cause problems for researchers not only in an indirect technique but also on almost sernua psychological research.

CHAPTER IIICLOSING
Attitude is the individual consciousness which determines real action in social activities. Then social attitudes are individual consciousness which determines real action, repeated on social objects. This happens not only on other people in the community.
Attitude as the level of trend that is positive or negative psychology associated with the object. Here the object of psychology include: symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas, and so on ..
              Although there are some differences pcngertian about his attitude, but there are some traits that can be approved. Most of the experts and researchers agree that the attitude is the attitude of a learned predisposition to influence behavior, change in terms of intensity, usually consistent throughout wakru in the same situation, and its composition is almost always complex. In connection with that we also tend to express the attitude of the following terms: Attitude is a readiness to respond to positive or negative nature of the object or situation consistently.
              Attitude arises because there is stimulus. Formation of an attitude that is heavily influenced by environmental stimulants such as social and culture: family, norms, religious groups, and customs. In this case the family has a big role in shaping the attitude of his sons. For families that as a primary group for children is the most dominant influence. Person's attitude is not always permanent. This does not mean people do not behave. He also only be in form: silent.
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