ECOSYSTEM

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Papers EcosystemSaturday, January 16, 2010 | By Afriza, S.Pd
I.PENDAHULUANRear a.LatarThe concept of EcosystemIt is now thought by the ekoligiawan that plants and animals, together with all lungkungannya form a system that works depends on the role played by each component of the system.As far as relating to a specific ecosystem structure has three components namely biological producers (autotrophs body) or green plants are able to tie up the light energy, Animals (heterotrophs body) or a macro that uses consumers and decomposers of organic material consisting of micro-organism which outlines the organic material and release of dissolved nutrients.Levels of foodUseful way to mampelajari interconnectedness of ecosystem components function is to study the basic way of life or to get food, or food at all levels of the bodies were found in the ecosystem. This approach also allows us to compare different types of ecosystems are some of them do not have this level of food.ProducerProducers in a given ecosystem is the body of the food themselves or are autotrophs. Jades basically consists of green plants.ConsumerIn addition to green plants and baktiri kemosintetik, all the other bodies are not the kind of decomposing bodies marupakan consumers or heterotrophs. Food is usually obtained from the individual lain.Konsumen dikelompokkkan be babarapa levels, namely:Primary 1.KonsumenThis group mainly consists of pamakan plants (herbivores) which in beberapahal presumably also includes the man himself. Among pamakan typical plants are sheep, goats, squirrels, grasshoppers, and so on mosquito larvae.Secondary 2.KonsumenThis group includes all sentient flesh-eating (carnivorous), including several types of plant-eating insects and including humans. Examples of typical carnivores are lions, eagles, great pakakak.Karnivora buirung such as an eagle then take a smaller carnivores such as snakes or frogs, commonly called karnifora peak.Decomposers / DecomposersThis decomposition is the main food of the last level in this ekosistem.Kelompok mainly consist of soil microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi Waupun also includes earthworms, termites, mites, beetles and other annthrophoda. (Ewusie.JY1990)

b.Tujuan Research:To find out the type and number of microorganisms present in an ecosystem
II.TINJAUAN REFERENCESIn estimating the population density of animals. It takes precision and patience. The first thing done is to determine the place that will do an estimate, then count and identify it, and the results can be created in the system list.Relative population density and densityPupolasi density of one kind or group of animals can be expressed in the form of number or biomass per unit, or a broad unity or unity or unity capture volume. Density is very important pupolasi measured to calculate productivity, but to compare a community with other komnitas this parameter is not so tapat. For the relative density was used. Relative density can be calculated by comparing the density of a species with a density of all types contained in the unit. Relative density is usually expressed as a percentage (Suin.NM1989)Among the features common to the populations and individuals is the fact that the population had a history of life as seen from the fact that populiasi grow, specialize and maintain himself and that the composition of the population has a definite structure which can be administered in the same relationship as individuals.Characteristic of the group includes a variety of patterns such as the birth rate / mortality rate of breeding, the composition of genital / reproductive system, age structure, distribution and social structure. (Ewusie.Y.1990)Knowledge of the influence of individual and population growth are fundamental to understanding the structure and ecological dynamics. All species have high growth potential in optimum condition.The number of births and deaths may berfluktasi widely in response to different environmental influences, but the number was close to balance in a long time.Species interactions such as predation, competition and herbivory will shut rise and fall of population growth.The population consists of many individuals who are scattered in stretch goegrafis. But the individual does not always spread evenly. There is a pattern of spread, ie gather, random and scattered.This distribution pattern is caused by a type of behavior of different individuals. On the one hand, gather as a result of the interest of individuals in the same place, whether because a suitable environment or a gathering place for social functions. For example, marriage, on the other hand spread as antagonistic interactions between individuals. In the absence of any appeal together / social spread of other individuals in the population.Examples of potential growth in human population that consists of lots of women aged 15-35 years was greater in the population consisting of mostly older men / children.The population growth rate that is as the end result of births and deaths, also affect the age structure and population. (Hadisubroto.T.1989)Population size generally varies from time, usually follow two patterns. Some populations maintain the size poulasi maintain population size, a relatively constant while the other pupolasi berfluktasi large enough. The main difference is the environment that stimulated an experiment to improve the grouse population. Investigation of population dynamics, in fact the balance between kelehiran and mortality in a population in an attempt to understand the nature mentioned. (Naughton.Mc.1973)A population can also be interpreted sabagai the same group. A population can also be interpreted as a kolompok creatures that inhabit the same species, and a special room at a particular time. Population can be divided into Deme, or local populations, groups that can fertilize each other, the smallest unit of collective animal or plant populations.Characteristics of the population has some form of statistical measurements that can not be applied to individual members opulasi. Basic characteristics of the population or population density is.Population density of the population size is associated with a unit of space, which is generally studied and found chopped sabagai individuals or biomass per unit area per unit of content. Sometimes it is important to distinguish the rough density of ecological density (= specific density).Gross density or biomass is a count of the total space of unity, whereas Ecological density is a count of individual biomass of unity of space habitats.In the event that is not practical to implement a population density mutklak. In the meantime it has been deemed sufficient if known kerapan relative of a population.
III.BAHAN AND METHODTime and place: Friday, December 14, 2007Edinburgh University ForestsEnvironmental Lab.bahasaMendalo Army - EdinburghTools and Materials:A. Tweezers2. Tali Rapia3. Stationery and table records the observations.
Working procedure:

DISCUSSION IV.HASIL BANA.HasilSpecies I II II IVA 2B 2C 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H 1I 1 3A 1K 1 1L 1M 1N 1O 1P 1Q 1R 1The number of 10 4 6 4

REFERENCES
Arnita, indriani.1990.Ekologi Umum.Gita Media Press: New York.
Ewusie JY1990.Ekologi Tropika.ITB.Bandung: Bandung.
Naughhton.1973. The second edition of General Ecology. Gadjah Mada University Press: New York
Suin, nurdin Muhammad.1989. Land Animal Ecology. Earth Literacy: Jakarta
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