24/6/120 komentar

INTRODUCTIONA. Problem BackgroundIndonesia is a country that has a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.Wealth of biodiversity is letting big profits for the community. Of them can meet human needs also contains protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.Protein as a source of a body builder can be derived from plants (vegetable) and animal (animal). Proteins derived from animals have the perfect content compared with vegetable protein. Therefore, the provision of animal protein sources should be sought.
In connection with the author bothered to pick the paper entitled "Vertebrate and Invertebrate Animal Diversity"
B. LimitationsThe limit problem in this paper are:A. Definition and differences of animals and animal Invertebrates Vertebrates.2. Phyla: animals that includes vertebrates and invertebrates animals.3. Vertebrate digestive system in animals and invertebrates

C. Want to Accomplish GoalsThe authors purpose in writing this paper isA. As a prerequisite to follow the UN / UAM2. To find a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates3. To add insight into the diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate animals
D. Methods UsedDescriptive methods to study literature or literary technique, namely the knowledge that comes from some written media in the form of books, litelatur and other media which of course has to do the problems discussed in this paper.
A. Vertebrate animalsA. UnderstandingVertebrate animals is a vertebrate animal or back. Has a structure which is much more perfect than animals Invertebrates. Vertebrate animals have a rope that is where the accumulation of the composition of nerve cells and has an extension collection of nerves from the brain. This rope is not in possession by an invertebrate. In meeting their needs, vertebrate animals have a circulatory system work perfectly centered with the cardiac vessels into the channel.The characteristics of vertebrate animals body:A. Have balakang bone extending from head to tail.2. Having a brain that is protected by the bones of the skull.3. Bilaterally symmetrical body shape.4. have a head, neck, body and tail of the tail and neck, although there is absolutely no example in the frog.Characteristic organ vertebrate animals as follows:A. Have a circular gland, which produces hormones endoksin to control. Growth and physiological processes or physiology2. Nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord3. Heat and keep body temperature (homoiternal) and cool the body temperature in accordance with environmental conditions (poikiloternal)4. The respiratory system / terpirasi the lungs (pulmonosum) skin and gill operculum5. The digestive tract extending from the mouth to the anus is located next to vertran (front) and spine6. The skin consists of epidermis (outer part) and endodermis (inner)7. Pairs except for reproduction in birds, the sex glands and testes produce ovalium of body cells and sperm cellsVertebrate animals (vertebrates) consists of classes, namely:A. Class Pisces (Fish)2. Class amphibious (Amphi Latin = two, bia = live)3. Reftilia classes (Language Latin repare = creeping / crawling)4. Class Aves (Bird)5. Mammalian classes (Language Latin meaning mammary glands of the breast, mammals means mammals)

2. Vertebrate Animals-Phylum Phyluma. Class Pisces (Fish)The main characteristic of Pisces as follows:- Cold-blooded animals that live in water- Breathe with gills (operculum) and in the skin Help- The body consists of the Head- Frame is composed of true bone- The heart consists of a hall and a chamber- Body covered in scales and have a lateral line to determine the direction and position of swimmingPisces can be divided into several orders, among others:2. Order ApodesFamilia (1): AngulidaeSpecies: Fish length (Arguilia vulgaria)Familia (2): Muruenidae3. Order ActhopterygiFamilia (1): ParsidaeSpecies: Kakap (Lataes carca lifer)Familia (2): Muruenidae4. Order HeterostonataSpecies: Fish of the tongue
5. Order LabysinthiciFamily: AnalamtidalSpecies: fish (lates carca lifer)Familia: scombridaeSpecies: cob (enthymus palamys)6. Order Masacop TerygiiFamily (1): chipeidaeSpecies: fish (Chonos-Chonos)Family (2): salam fish (salmosalor)7. Order OstariophysiFamilia (1): analamtidalSpecies: snapper (lates carca lifer)Family: scmbridaeb. Class AmphibiaAmphibians characteristics as follows:- Able to live in water and on land or moist places- Called also animals that have a place to live (habitat) in two natural- Animals breathe with lungs and skin. Frog eggs and tadpoles live in water and then as an adult living on land, tadpole-shaped fish that breathe with gills and skin, after its time to grow legs and decrease the life of the tail eventually disappears while the gills gradually disappear and be replaced by the lungs then becomes an adult frog.- The heart which bears three two and one chamber foyer.- Breed by laying eggs and egg fertilization by the sperm occurs outside the body (external fertilization).Amphibians can be divided into several orders:A. Order bymnofora / opoda (Amphibia-footed but does not have a tail)Species: snake, worm (ichtyo phisgentmosus)2. Order Anura / solienta (Amphibia no tail but it has legs)Family: RanidaeSpecies: buduk frog, green frog (Kamacun crivoras)Familia: hyhidaeSpecies: tree frog (Hyla SP)3. Order wodela / candata (Amphibia the tail and legs)Familia: pretidaeSpecies: Aning lumpru (necturus onaculanu)Familia: crypto bran chidaeSpecies: solomonder water (Ripto akeganiesis bronchus)c. Reftilia class (reptiles)The characteristics of reptiles are as follows:- Dry skin is flaky because the substance of the horn substance kertin- Breathing with the lungs- Bloody Cold (porkoliokonal) ie the body temperature is affected by ambient temperature- Generally are avivar (spawn), examples of lizards, and viviparous birth, such snake.- The heart consists of four chambers: two porch and the two chambers are still not perfect.Reptiles can be divided into several orders, among others:1) Order of crocodiliansFamilia: crocodylidaeSpecies: alligator is (crocodyeus bifocatus), a large crocodile (porosus crocodyes)2) Order cheloniaFamilia (1): crocodylidaeSpecies: turtles (chelaina nydas)Familia (2): tryony chidaeSpecies: kuya (try ony x cartilaginews)Familia (3): testudinidaeSpecies: turtles (euora ambirinesis)3) Order caceriliaFamilia (1): cacertidaeSpecies: lizard (hemidacty frenatus)Familia (2): geckonocdaeSpecies: gecko (gecko monarchis)Familia (3): henoermatidaeSpecies: lizard (heloderma SP)Familia: VaranidaeSpecies: Komodo (voronus komodensis)lizard (voronus salvator4) Order AphidiaExample: rice snakes, cobras, etc.d. Class aves (birds)The main characteristic aves as follows:- The tool of vision, hearing instrument and sound equipment is already well developed- Bloody hot (homoioteral)- The heart consists of four rooms 2 hall and two chambers are already well developed- Conception egg and sperm / fertilization occurs within the parent body (internal fertilization)- There is a pair of testes, ovaries, while only one and grow well on the left.Aves can be divided into several orders, among others:1) Order colombiforinesFamilia: columbidalSpecies: turtledove (geopilia striata)2) Order coraciiformesFamilia: arcedinadaeSpecies: telengket (harcy concholm)3) Order of grana caresFamilia (1): ardidaeSpecies: stork (reptotilas javanicus)Familia (2): rassidalSpecies: mordar (parphyrio albus)4) Order of NATO ToresFamilia (1): laridaeSpecies: ternFamilia (2): pamilirostrosSpecies: duck / duck (anus koshos)Familia (3): sphe niscidaeSpecies: penguins (Aptenodytes SP)5) Order rapacesFamilia (1): fontanidaSpecies: kestrel (Falco papuanus)Familia (2): strigi daeSpecies: owls (suba Kukua)
e. Class MammaliaThe main characteristics of mammals as follows:- Most live on land, but others live in water like a whale, dolphin-luma- Bloody hot- In the skin and sweat glands are oil glands- The brain is well developed- Internal fertilization- Breathing with the lungs- There are four heart chambers are perfectThe various orders of mammals, among others:1) Order dactylaSpecies: The topics (clocidura marina)Javan rhino (rhino cerassoondaicus)
2) Order insectivoraSpecies: cecurut (cocidura mosina)Squirrel (tupaja javarita)3) Order phalidataSpecies: pangolin (scaly body)4) Order ChiropteraSpecies: bats (Chiroptera micro SP)Bats (megachiroptera SP)5) Order marsupialaSpecies: cat (fell is Catus)Lion (lion fell is)Tiger (fell is tigris)Wolves (canislupus)6) Order marsopialiaSpecies: kangaroos (macropus)Cuscus (plalanger)7) Order prosboscidaeSpecies: Elephant (elephan indicus)Elephants Africa (loxoder africanus)8) Order artidactyeaSpecies: buffalo (Bubalus-Bubalus)Bull (basssonduicus)Goat (Capra faleoheri)
3. Digestive System in Vertebrate AnimalsThe process of digestion can take place mechanically and chemically. Mechanical digestion is a process that converts food into small pieces. While the chemical digestion is a process of changing the food with the help of digestive enzymes.A. Digestive system in fishFor instance, goldfish have digestive tract consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine and anus. Fish have a short tongue lying at the base of the mouth, the tongue can not be used as the tongue in other animals. Goldfish do not have salivary glands of the mucous glands but had his mouth. The stomach is a widening of the digestive tract2. Digestive system in AmphibiaFor example, the frog has a digestive tract consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, cloaca.To help swallow food, the food is mixed with the saliva produced by salivary glands. Digestion of food takes place in the frog stomach has digestive glands are the liver and pancreas.3. Digestive system in reptilesAs exemplified by lizards that have a digestive tract consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine and cloaca. Lizards have a liver and pancreas as a digestive gland.Stomach in reptiles shape according to the shape of the body, such as the turtle-shaped hull is somewhat rounded.
4. Digestive systems of birdsFor example, pigeons have a digestive tract consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and cloaca. Bird had a liver and pancreas, both of the digestive gland which is located outside the digestive tract.5. Digestive system in mammalsMammals such as cows have a stomach that is composed of four parts, namely a big belly (rimen), net stomach (reticulum) of the abdomen Kilab (omosum), and sour stomach (obomasum). Food in the form of grass and the like from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach large, great food from the stomach back into the mouth to dimumah, after dimumah ingested food in the stomach and into the net, then to the stomach Kilab and finally into a sour stomach.
B. Animals InvertebratesA. UnderstandingInvertebrates are animals are invertebrates, and have the morphological and anatomical structure is simpler than the group of invertebrate animals / rear, as well as the digestive system, respiratory and circulatory simpler than invertebrates.
2. Invertebrate animal phylaa. Phyla frotozoaFrotozoa a single-celled animals that live in water, protozoa eat the plants and animals, breed frotozoa unseksual or vegetative reproduction by splitting and by the way seksuan / generative conjugation.Frotozoa phylum is divided into several classes:1) Class-haired animal shakes (cikata)2) Class pseudo-legged animals (rhizopoda)3) Class berspora animals (sporozoa)4) Class furry whip (flogellato)b. Forifera phyla (animal berfori)Forifera are aquatic animals and marine life in the body like a plant attached to the seabed, so forifera can move freely, the body forifera like tube that has a lot of pores (small holes on the sides and has a cavity on the inside) forifera can develop multiplied by the generative and vegetative.Forifera consists of three classes:1) Class corcoreaConsists of lime (spicules) and live in a shallow sea, for example; seghpha SP, SP charsarina2) Class hexactinelidaConsisting of grit and substance of life in the sea. For example pnerorepa SP3) Class demospangiaDo not even have a soft body frame, an example spongia SPc. Coelentrata phyla (animal hollow)Coelentrata derived from coilos (hollow) and entron (colon) coelentrata have two forms of the passive form is attached to a base and did not move.Coelentrata consists of three classes;1) Class anthozoa2) Class hydrozoa3) Class Scyphozoad. Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)Platyhelminthes word comes from the Greek, the word plays (flat) and hemlines (worms). Platyhelminthes are having a flat. This group of animals have bilateral symmetry of the body, (both sides together), soft bodies and are not segmented (segments) but had no blood circulation.Platyhelminthes are divided into three classes, namely:1) Class turbellaria (worm-haired profile)2) Class trematodes (worms suck)3) Class cestroda (tapeworm)e. Phylum Mollusca (soft animals)As the name implies, soft animals have soft bodies protected by shells made from calcium (lime) is hermoporit molluscs, have a digestive system, respiratory system and excretory systemsMollusca is divided into four classes;1) Class lamilli brancuiata (class and oyster reefs)2) Class gastropods (snails class)3) Class cephalopods (squid group)4) Class amphineuraf. Enchinodermata phyla (thorn-skinned animals)Said above comes from the Greek echimos (porcupine) and charity (skin) all the animals that includes phyla echinoderms usually live in the sea, radially symmetrical body shape (circular sides equal). Have ameudakral system (water pump system). Order in calcareous and has many prominent spines. Power generation is very large.Enchinodermata phylum consists of five classes, namely:1) Class starfish (asteroidal)2) Class of sea urchin (echinoidal)3) Class starfish (opiuroidal)4) Class wax marine (crinoidal)5) Class teripong (holothuroidae)g. Phylum arthropodsThis phylum has the largest number of species compared to other phyla. Beruasa-body and leg segments and bilaterally symmetrical, outside the framework contains a chemical. Arthropods has a circulation of blood, but blood is colorless, old growth metamorphosis (changing shape).Phylum arthropods consist of:1) Class of insects (Insecta)2) Class of spiders (arachoidae)3) Class crustaceans (erustacea)4) Class centipede (mynapoda)
3. Digestive System In Animals Invertebratesa. Protozoa of the digestive system in animalsFor example, the amoeba is a single-celled animals all his life activity going on inside the cell itself. Similarly, digestion of food occurs in the cell, called a cell senses digestion.At the time of amoeba amoeba obtain food immediately apparent form the legs that leads to the next meal surrounded by artificial leg and then the food is brought to the protoplasm. In the protoplasm which contains foods that produce digestive enzymes. In the cavity of digestion of food occurs. Food has been ingested in the form of the nutrients absorbed from food debris and removed from the body.b. Digestive system in group hermesFor example, the earthworm has a digestive tract consisting of the mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine and anus.The front is slightly enlarged esophagus called Paring which is used to suck food from the mouth and wet it with mucus. Earthworms in the form of food humus contained in the soil that is acidic, the esophagus is surrounded on three pairs of glands that produce lime which can neutralize the acidic nature of the food.c. Digestive system in animals InsectaInsects such as grasshoppers have a cache function to store food while in the lower cache contained salivary glands that produce saliva. Saliva is drained through the trunk into the oral cavity. Of the food crop into the gizzard and the gizzard food is destroyed, then the food passed into the stomach. On the front side there are six pairs of the appendix that serves as a digestive gland. Food that is not absorbed in the stomach to digest. Leftover food from the intestine through peletum expelled through the anus.CHAPTER IIICONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. ConclusionBased on the above discussion we can conclude the following:- Animals that vertebrate animals have a spine that is more perfect body structure of the invertebrates. Vertebrates have a similar rope marrow gathering place for the nerve cells and be an extension collection of nerves from the brain- Animals invertebrates are animals without backbones and have the morphological and anatomical structure is simpler than the vertebrate groups / waist.
B. Suggestion- For us and the generations to come it is fitting to preserve protect and preserve the animal kenanekaragaman contained in our country and especially in our environment.- To the reader if you want to know more about this subject can read books or magazines which contain about animal diversity
Soedjono, et al. Of 1996. High school biology II. PT. Multi Adiwitata, AppealWahono, Lili, et al., 1994. Junior Biology I. Appeal; PT. Panca Works FacilityRustam, Nuryani and Otang Hidayat, 1994, Junior High School Biology II. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture
Share this article :

Publicar un comentario


Test Footer 1


Support : Creating Website | Johny Template | Mas Template
Copyright © 2011. KUMPULAN MAKALAH ALHASYI - All Rights Reserved
Template Created by Creating Website Published by Mas Template
Proudly powered by Blogger